Ovarian angiogenesis in polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine pathology among women in reproductive age. Its main symptoms are oligo or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and the presence of ovarian cysts. It is also associated with infertility, obesity and insulin resistance. Mainly due to its heterogeneity, PCOS treatments are directed to manage its symptoms and to prevent associated diseases. The correct formation and regression of blood vessels during each ovarian cycle is indispensable for proper follicular development, ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The importance of these processes opened a new and promising field: ovarian angiogenesis. Vascular alterations characterize numerous pathologies, either with increased, decreased or abnormal angiogenesis. In the last years, several anomalies of ovarian angiogenesis have been described in women with PCOS. Therefore, it has been suggested that these alterations may be associated with the decreased – or lack of – ovulation rates and for the formation of cysts in the PCOS ovaries. Restoration of a proper vessel formation in the ovaries may lead to improved follicular development and ovulation in these patients. In the present review, we attempt to summarize the alterations in ovarian angiogenesis that have been described in women with PCOS. We also discuss the therapeutic approaches aimed to correct these alterations and their beneficial effects on the treatment of infertility in PCOS.
Source: The journal of Reproductive Science