Natural and environmental oestrogens induce TGFB1 synthesis in oviduct cells
Autocrine/paracrine factors generated in response to 17β-oestradiol (E2), within the oviduct, facilitate early embryo development for implantation. Since transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) plays a key role in embryo implantation, regulation of its synthesis by E2 may be of biological/pathophysiological relevance. Here, we investigated whether oviduct cells synthesize TGFB1 and whether E2 and environmental oestrogens (EOEs; xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens) modulate its synthesis. Under basal conditions, bovine oviduct cells (OCs; oviduct epithelial cells and oviduct fibroblasts; 1:1 ratio) synthesized TGFB1. E2 concentration-dependent induced TGFB1 levels in OCs and these effects were mimicked by some, but not all EOEs (genistein, biochanin A and 4-hydroxy-2′,4′,6′-trichlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2′,4′,6′-dichlorobiphenyl); moreover, EOEs enhanced (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effects of E2 on TGFB1 synthesis. The OCs expressed oestrogen receptors alpha and beta and aryl hydrocarbon; moreover, co-treatment with ER antagonist ICI182780 blocked the stimulatory effects of E2 and EOEs on TGFB1 synthesis. Treatment with non-permeable E2-BSA failed to induce TGFB1, thereby ruling out the involvement of membrane ERs. Cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) blocked E2-induced TGFB1 synthesis providing evidence for de novo synthesis. The stimulatory effects of E2 and EOEs, were inhibited (P < 0.05) by MAPK inhibitor (PD98059), whereas intracellular-Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) and adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536) abrogated the effects of E2, but not EOEs, suggesting that post-ER effects of E2 and EOEs involve different pathways. Our results provide the first evidence that in OCs, E2 and EOEs stimulate TGFB1 synthesis via an ER-dependent pathway. Exposure of the oviduct to EOEs may result in continuous/sustained induction of TGFB1 levels in a non-cyclic fashion and may induce deleterious effects on reproduction.
Source: The journal of Reproductive Science