Initiation of follicular atresia: gene networks during early atresia in pig ovaries
In mammals, more than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo a degenerative process known as atresia. The molecular events involved in atresia initiation remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze differential gene expression profiles of medium antral ovarian follicles during early atresia in pig. The transcriptome evaluation was performed on cDNA microarrays using healthy and early atretic follicle samples and was validated by quantitative PCR. Annotation analysis applying current database (Sus scrofa 11.1) revealed 450 significantly differential expressed genes between healthy and early atretic follicles. Among them, 142 were significantly upregulated in early atretic with respect to healthy group and 308 were downregulated. Similar expression trends were observed between microarray data and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, which indicated the reliability of the microarray analysis. Further analysis of the differential expressed genes revealed the most significantly affected biological functions during early atresia including blood vessel development, regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress and negative regulation of cell adhesion. The pathway and interaction analysis suggested that atresia initiation associates with (1) a crosstalk of cell apoptosis, autophagy and ferroptosis rather than change of typical apoptosis markers, (2) dramatic shift of steroidogenic enzymes, (3) deficient glutathione metabolism and (4) vascular degeneration. The novel gene candidates and pathways identified in the current study will lead to a comprehensive view of the molecular regulation of ovarian follicular atresia and a new understanding of atresia initiation.
Source: The journal of Reproductive Science