Implications of microRNA dysregulation in the development of prostate cancer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that target mRNA to reduce protein expression. They play fundamental roles in several diseases, including prostate cancer (PCa). A single miRNA can target hundreds of mRNAs and coordinately regulate them, which implicates them in nearly every biological pathway. Hence, miRNAs modulate proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, most of them constituting crucial hallmarks of cancer. Due to these properties, miRNAs emerged as promising tools for diagnostic, prognosis and management of cancer patients. Moreover, they come out as potential targets for cancer treatment, and several efforts are being made to progress in the field of miRNA-based cancer therapy. In this review, we will summarize the recent information about miRNAs in PCa. We will recapitulate all the miRNAs involved in the androgen pathway and the biology of PCa, focusing in PCa initiation and progression. In particular, we will describe the miRNAs associated with cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in PCa, as well as invasion, adhesion and metastatic miRNAs. We will revise the recent progress made understanding the role of circulating miRNAs identified in PCa that might be useful for PCa patient stratification. Another key aspect to be discussed in this review is miRNAs’ role in PCa therapy, including the miRNAs delivery.
Source: The journal of Reproductive Science